Phases of the Menstrual Cycle

Regl Döngüsünün Fazları
The menstrual cycle is a physiological situation in which the ovaries and the uterus play the leading role. First menstrual cycle ; It begins with the first menstrual bleeding (menarche) of every person with a uterus and continues until menopause.

Period ; It is also referred to as menstruation today, as it is generally experienced in the first days of the month. However, just as each person's menstrual cycle is different , the beginning, end and time between are also different.

What is meant by the menstrual cycle is the period from the first day of menstruation (bleeding) to the first day of the next menstrual period. The days when we do not bleed are also included in the cycle.

An average menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. It may vary between 21-35 days. 2-8 days out of 28 days are bleeding and are known as the menstrual period. Menstrual cycle; It consists of 4 phases: menstruation, follicular phase, ovulation and luteal phase.

The phases in the menstrual cycle are triggered by the rise and fall of hormones in the body. The pituitary gland and ovaries produce and secrete certain hormones that cause organs in the reproductive system to respond in certain ways at certain times during the menstrual cycle. Specific events that occur during the menstrual cycle can be described as follows:


This phase, which typically lasts from the first to the fifth day of the menstrual period , is when the thickened inner layer of the uterus is expelled through the vagina, if pregnancy has not occurred. Most people bleed for 3 to 5 days, but anything from 2 days to 7-8 days is also considered normal.

Follicular Phase:

This phase typically occurs between days 6 and 14. It begins immediately after menstruation and continues until ovulation. During this time, the level of the hormone estrogen rises, causing the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) to grow and thicken. In addition, another hormone - follicle-stimulating hormone - causes the follicles (egg cell) in the ovaries to grow. On days 10 to 14, one of the developing follicles will form a fully mature ovum.


This phase occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle. It is the stage when the mature egg is expelled. It is caused by a sudden increase in another hormone, LH - luteinizing hormone. The egg is released into the fallopian canal towards the uterus. This event is called ovulation . The lifespan of the egg is 24 hours, and unless it unites with a sperm during this period, the egg dies.

Luteal Phase:

It lasts from approximately day 15 to day 28. After the egg is released from the ovary, it begins to travel through the fallopian tubes to the uterus. While the estrogen hormone, which had increased until the ovulation phase, gradually decreases , the progesterone hormone, which thickens the uterine lining, begins to rise. Levels of the hormone progesterone rise to help prepare the uterine lining for pregnancy. If the egg is fertilized by a sperm and attaches to your uterine wall, you become pregnant. If pregnancy does not occur, estrogen and progesterone levels drop and the thickened wall of the uterus is shed during menstruation. This happens on the first day of the next menstrual cycle, and menstruation begins again.

Keeping track of your menstrual cycle gives clues about your health and is very important.
If there is a gynecological disorder or pregnancy-related problems, it can be easily detected, and even if there is no suspicious situation, it gives messages about whether the body is functioning properly.

You can continue reading for the symptoms that can be seen in the body just before menstruation and are considered normal.
  • Moodiness
  • sleep problem
  • food cravings
  • Cramps in the lower abdomen and back
  • Swelling
  • Tenderness in breasts
  • Acne
Symptoms that are not considered normal are:
  • Not having experienced your first period until age 16
  • Sudden stop of menstruation
  • Bleeding more than normal
  • Severe pain during menstruation
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Delay in menstruation after sexual intercourse
  • Not having a period within three months of stopping birth control pills
  • Have any questions or doubts about your period or the possibility of pregnancy
If you experience one or more of these items, we recommend that you consult a specialist.
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